Sample Types

Sample types and parameter classes are used to categorize water monitoring sites in the Water Data Catalogue. A listing of parameters included in each parameter class is provided to aid parameter-based searches.

Aquatic organisms: Measurements of species occurrence and population density of aquatic organisms.

Fish: The collection, counting, and identification of fish species to determine species occurrence and/or population density.

ParametersUnits
Biological characteristics, ageyears
Biological characteristics, dietspecies composition by volume
Biological characteristics, gendermale/female/unknown
Biological characteristics, lengthmm
Biological characteristics, maturitycategory
Biological characteristics, weightg
Relative abundance, catch per unit effortcount/time and sample gear characteristics
Species presence/absencebinary

Invertebrates: The collection, counting, and identification of macroinvertebrates to determine species occurrence and/or population density.

ParametersUnits
Benthic invertebrate compositionspecies type
Benthic invertebrate densitycount
Benthic invertebrate presence/absencebinary

Other: Other measurements not classified in given categories.

ParametersUnits
Canopy coverage%
Habitat types (pools, rapids, riffles, straight runs)category
Macrophyte coverage%
Riparian zone (coniferous, deciduous, grasses/ferns, shrubs)category

Hydrological: Hydrological measurements including streamflow, surface and groundwater level.

Depth to groundwater: The distance from the surface of the ground (or top of well casing) to the top surface of the water under the ground (in a borehole).

ParametersUnits
Original static water level below ground surfacem
Water level below top of casingm
Water level, gauge or piezometric readingm

Other: Other measurements not classified in given categories.

ParametersUnits
Average velocitym/s
Bankfull-wetted depthcm
Channel depth, averagecm
Channel depth, maximumcm
Channel width, bankfulm
Channel width, wettedm
Date of ice break-upday-of-year
Gradient over 30 degrees%
Ice thicknessm
Instantaneous velocitym/s
Maximum velocitym/s
Slopem/m

Streamflow discharge: The per unit time volume of water flow.

ParametersUnits
Instantaneous dischargem^3/s

Surface water level: An arbitrary water level relative to a benchmark elevation.

ParametersUnits
Water level above a geodetic datumm

Meteorological: Meteorological measurements including temperature, precipitation, wind, humidity, and other climate-related parameters.

Humidity: Measurements of humidity, the quantity of water vapour in a given volume of surrounding air.

ParametersUnits
Daily maximum relative humidity%
Daily minimum relative humidity%
Hourly relative humidity%

Other: Other measurements not classified in given categories.

ParametersUnits
Barometric pressuremb
Direct short radiationW/m^2
Hourly station pressurekPa
Hourly visibilitykm
Net radiationW/m^2
Reflected short radiationW/m^2
Soil heat fluxW/m^2
Soil moistureWC

Precipitation: Rain or snowfall amount recorded in liquid water equivalent.

ParametersUnits
24 hour rainfall at noon PSTmm
Daily total precipitationmm
Daily total rainmm
Daily total snowcm
One hour rainfallmm

Temperature: An index of radiation input - relative class of heating or cooling.

ParametersUnits
Air-snow interface temperatureC
Daily maximum temperatureC
Daily mean temperatureC
Daily minimum temperatureC
Hourly air temperatureC
Hourly dew point temperatureC
Soil temperatureC
Surface temperatureC

Wind: Measurements of wind direction and speed.

ParametersUnits
10-min mean wind speedkm/h
Daily direction of maximum gustDegrees true
Daily speed of maximum gustkm/h
Hourly maximum wind speedkm/h
Hourly wind directionDegrees true
Hourly wind speedkm/h

Microbiological: Microbiological examinations of water samples to determine sanitary quality.

Microbiological: Microbiological tests for the detection and enumeration of indicator organisms and pathogens.

ParametersUnits
Coliform, Eschericiacfu/100mL
Coliform, fecalcfu/100mL
Coliform, fecal, MPN techniqueMPN/100mL
Coliforms, Eschericia, MPN techniqueMPN/100mL
Coliforms, totalcfu/100mL
Coliforms, total, MPN techniqueMPN/100mL
Giardia, string wound filter sent for analysiscount/100L
Giardia, water sample sent for analysiscount/L
Heterotrophic plate countcfu/1mL
Heterotrophic plate count, luminescent techniqueMPN/mL

Sediment chemistry: Analyses for organic, inorganic, nutrient and metal compounds in sediments.

Inorganics: Analyses for inorganic nonmetallic constituents, including sulphate, fluoride, cyanide, chlorine, bromine, pH, and dissolved oxygen.

ParametersUnits
Cyanide, total in sedimentmg/kg
Sulphur, total in sedimentmg/kg

Metals: Measurements of dissolved, extractable or total metals including arsenic, cadmium, copper, gold, iron, lead, mercury, selenium, zinc, and more.

ParametersUnits
Aluminum, total in sedimentmg/kg
Antimony, total in sedimentmg/kg
Arsenic, total in sedimentmg/kg
Barium, total in sedimentmg/kg
Beryllilum, total in sedimentmg/kg
Bismuth, total in sedimentmg/kg
Boron, total in sedimentmg/kg
Cadmium, total in sedimentmg/kg
Calcium, total in sedimentmg/kg
Chromium, total in sedimentmg/kg
Cobalt, total in sedimentmg/kg
Copper, total in sedimentmg/kg
Gold, total in sedimentmg/kg
Iron, total in sedimentmg/kg
Lead, total in sedimentmg/kg
Magnesium, total in sedimentmg/kg
Manganese, total in sedimentmg/kg
Mercury, total in sedimentmg/kg
Metals, total in sedimentmg/kg
Molybdenum, total in sedimentmg/kg
Nickel, total in sedimentmg/kg
Potassium, total in sedimentmg/kg
Selenium, total in sedimentmg/kg
Silver, total in sedimentmg/kg
Sodium, total in sedimentmg/kg
Strontium, total in sedimentmg/kg
Thallium, total in sedimentmg/kg
Tin, total in sedimentmg/kg
Titanium, total in sedimentmg/kg
Vanadium, total in sedimentmg/kg
Zinc, total in sedimentmg/kg
Zirconium, total in sedimentmg/kg

Nutrients: Analyses for phosphorous and nitrogen based compounds.

ParametersUnits
Nitrogen, total in sedimentmg/kg
Phosphorus, total phosphate in sediment, as Pmg/kg
Phosphorus, total reacitve phosphate in sedimentmg/kg

Organics: Analyses for aggregate organic constituents and indvidual organic compounds including biochemical oxygen demand, phenols, oil & grease, and benzene.

ParametersUnits
Carbon, total organic in sedimentmg/kg
Hydrocarbonsmg/kg
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)mg/kg

Other: Other measurements not classified in given categories.

ParametersUnits
Dominant substrate typecategory
Dominant sustrate sizemm
Mean particle sizeµm
Moisture Content%
Particle size fraction analysis% by weight
Solids, fixedmg/kg
Solids, volatilemg/kg
Substrate embeddednesscategory

Snowpack: Snow measurements including snow depth and snow water equivalent.

Other: Other measurements not classified in given categories.

ParametersUnits
Snow density%

Snow depth: The distance from the top surface of the snow to the surface of the ground.

ParametersUnits
Snow depthcm

Snow water equivalent: The depth of liquid water contained in the snowpack, if the snowpack was melted.

ParametersUnits
Snow water equivalentmm

Water chemistry: Measurements of physical properties of water; analyses for organic, inorganic, nutrient and metal compounds; as well as biological and toxicity testing.

Inorganics: Analyses for inorganic nonmetallic constituents, including sulphate, fluoride, cyanide, chlorine, bromine, pH, and dissolved oxygen.

ParametersUnits
Acidity or alkalinity, fieldpH
Acidity or alkalinity, laboratorypH
Brominemg/L
Carbon dioxide gasppm
Chloridemg/L
Chlorine, free residualmg/L
Chlorine, totalmg/L
Cyanatemg/L
Cyanide, freemg/L
Cyanide, strong acid dissociablemg/L
Cyanide, totalmg/L
Cyanide, weak acid dissociablemg/L
Fluoridemg/L
Fluorinemg/L
Oxygen, dissolved, fieldmg/L
Ratio of deuterium and oxygen isotopesratio
Simple cyanide, pyridine-barbituric acid methodmg/L
Sulphate, dissolvedmg/L
Sulphate, not specified as total or dissolvedmg/L
Sulphate, totalmg/L
Sulphidemg/L
Sulphite, dissolvedmg/L
Thiocyanatemg/L

Metals: Measurements of dissolved, extractable or total metals including arsenic, cadmium, copper, gold, iron, lead, mercury, selenium, zinc, and more.

ParametersUnits
Aluminum, dissolvedmg/L
Aluminum, extractablemg/L
Aluminum, totalmg/L
Antimony, dissolvedmg/L
Antimony, extractablemg/L
Antimony, totalmg/L
Arsenic, dissolvedmg/L
Arsenic, extractablemg/L
Arsenic, totalmg/L
Barium, dissolvedmg/L
Barium, extractablemg/L
Barium, totalmg/L
Beryllium, dissolvedmg/L
Beryllium, extractablemg/L
Beryllium, totalmg/L
Bismuth, dissolvedmg/L
Bismuth, extractablemg/L
Bismuth, totalmg/L
Boron, dissolvedmg/L
Boron, extractablemg/L
Boron, totalmg/L
Cadmium, dissolvedmg/L
Cadmium, extractablemg/L
Cadmium, totalmg/L
Calcium, dissolvedmg/L
Calcium, extractablemg/L
Calcium, totalmg/L
Chromium, dissolvedmg/L
Chromium, extractablemg/L
Chromium, totalmg/L
Cobalt, dissolvedmg/L
Cobalt, extractablemg/L
Cobalt, totalmg/L
Copper, dissolvedmg/L
Copper, extractablemg/L
Copper, totalmg/L
Iron, dissolvedmg/L
Iron, extractablemg/L
Iron, totalmg/L
Lanthanium, dissolvedmg/L
Lanthanium, extractablemg/L
Lanthanium, totalmg/L
Lead, dissolvedmg/L
Lead, extractablemg/L
Lead, totalmg/L
Lithium, dissolvedmg/L
Lithium, extractablemg/L
Lithium, totalmg/L
Magnesium, dissolvedmg/L
Magnesium, extractablemg/L
Magnesium, totalmg/L
Manganese, dissolvedmg/L
Manganese, extractablemg/L
Manganese, totalmg/L
Mercury, dissolvedmg/L
Mercury, extractablemg/L
Mercury, totalmg/L
Molybdenum, dissolvedmg/L
Molybdenum, extractablemg/L
Molybdenum, totalmg/L
Nickel, dissolvedmg/L
Nickel, extractablemg/L
Nickel, totalmg/L
Phosphorus, dissolved (not colourmetric)mg/L
Phosphorus, extractable (not colourmetric)mg/L
Phosphorus, total (not colourmetric)mg/L
Potassium, dissolvedmg/L
Potassium, extractablemg/L
Potassium, totalmg/L
Selenium, dissolvedmg/L
Selenium, extractablemg/L
Selenium, totalmg/L
Selenium, total by graphite furnace methodmg/L
Silicon, dissolvedmg/L
Silicon, extractablemg/L
Silicon, totalmg/L
Silver, dissolvedmg/L
Silver, extractablemg/L
Silver, totalmg/L
Sodium, dissolvedmg/L
Sodium, extractablemg/L
Sodium, totalmg/L
Strontium, dissolvedmg/L
Strontium, extractablemg/L
Strontium, totalmg/L
Sulphur, dissolvedmg/L
Sulphur, extractablemg/L
Sulphur, totalmg/L
Tellurium, dissolvedmg/L
Tellurium, extractablemg/L
Tellurium, totalmg/L
Thallium, dissolvedmg/L
Thallium, extractablemg/L
Thallium, totalmg/L
Thorium, dissolvedmg/L
Thorium, extractablemg/L
Thorium, totalmg/L
Tin, dissolvedmg/L
Tin, extractablemg/L
Tin, totalmg/L
Titanium, dissolvedmg/L
Titanium, extractablemg/L
Titanium, totalmg/L
Tungsten, dissolvedmg/L
Tungsten, extractablemg/L
Tungsten, totalmg/L
Uranium, dissolvedmg/L
Uranium, extractablemg/L
Uranium, totalmg/L
Vanadium, dissolvedmg/L
Vanadium, extractablemg/L
Vanadium, totalmg/L
Zinc, dissolvedmg/L
Zinc, extractablemg/L
Zinc, totalmg/L
Zirconium, dissolvedmg/L
Zirconium, extractablemg/L
Zirconium, totalmg/L

Nutrients: Analyses for phosphorous and nitrogen based compounds.

ParametersUnits
Ammonium nitrogen (NH3, NH4+), as Nmg/L
Nitrate nitrogen, as Nmg/L
Nitrite and nitrate nitrogen, as Nmg/L
Nitrite nitrogen, as Nmg/L
Phosphorus, total dissolved phosphate, as Pmg/L
Phosphorus, total phosphate, as Pmg/L
Phosphorus, total reactive (ortho) phosphate, as Pmg/L
Total kjeldahl nitrogen (organic nitrogen), as Nmg/L

Organics: Analyses for aggregate organic constituents and indvidual organic compounds including biochemical oxygen demand, phenols, oil & grease, and benzene.

ParametersUnits
Benzeneug/L
Biochemical oxygen demand, 5-daymg/L
Caffeinemg/L
Carbon, dissolved organicmg/L
Carbon, total inorganicmg/L
Carbon, total organicmg/L
Chemical oxygen demandmg/L
Ethylbenzeneug/L
Extractable petroleum hydrocarbons, 10-19 rangeug/L
Extractable petroleum hydrocarbons, 19-32 rangeug/L
Methane gasppm
Mineral oil & grease aka total petroleum hydrocarbonmg/L
Oil & greasemg/L
Oil & grease, totalmg/L
Phenols, totalmg/L
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)ug/L
Styreneug/L
Surfactantsmg/L
Tolueneug/L
Trihalomethanesmg/L
Volatile Organic Compoundsug/L
Volatile Petroleum Hydrocarbons, 6-10 rangeug/L
Xylenes (meta and para)ug/L
Xylenes (ortho)ug/L
Xylenes, total (ortho, meta, and para)ug/L

Other: Other measurements not classified in given categories.

ParametersUnits
Radium 226Bq/L

Physical: Measurements of physical and aggregate properties of water including colour, turbidity, odour, taste, acidity, alkalinity, hardness, conductivity, salinity, solids, and temperature.

ParametersUnits
Acidity to pH 8.3mgCaCO3/L
Alkalinity, bicarbonate HCO3mg/L
Alkalinity, carbonate CO3mg/L
Alkalinity, hydroxide OHmg/L
Alkalinity, phenolphthaleinmgCaCO3/L
Alkalinity, totalmgCaCO3/L
Calculated HardnessmgCaCO3/L
Colour, trueTCU
Conductivity, fielduS/cm
Conductivity, labuS/cm
Flow rate, volumetricL/s
Hardness, calcualted from total metal scanmgCaCO3/L
Hardness, calculated from dissolved metal scanmgCaCO3/L
Instantaneous suspended sediment concentrationmg/l
Oxidation, reduction potentialmV
Secchi disc depthm
Settleable solidsml/L
Suspended sediment single sampling verticalm
Temperature, fieldC
Total dissolved solidsmg/L
Total suspended solidsmg/L
TurbidityNTU

Toxicity: Toxicity tests to determine the relative sensitivity of aquatic organisms to an effluent or toxicant.

ParametersUnits
Daphnia magna, percent%
Daphnia magna, timeh
Lethal Concentration @ 50% Mortal Bioassay%
Lethal Time @ 50% Mortal Bioassay at 100% concentrationh
Sublethal toxicity (growth, reproduction, survival)chronic value of chemical or effluent